The experience of Go math second grade universities shows an increase in the efficiency of education in the transition from the division of specialization programs within the bachelor’s degree. At the first stage, as a rule, general education is given with the subsequent deepening both in theoretical and applied aspects in master’s and doctoral studies.
The idea of expanding the role of interdisciplinary master’s programs, which offer students a wide range of courses of choice, should also be emphasized, providing students with an excellent opportunity to obtain a second degree in another specialty or a diploma in interdisciplinary disciplines.
According to Russian researchers of higher education, this interdisciplinary approach is first of all objectively complex and historically unusual for Russian universities, as it involves different ways of working with different contingents and using the principle of “a little about a lot” instead of the usual for Russians principle of “a lot about one”.
It is especially worth noting that in addition to the mobile organization of the step-by-step learning process, flexible foreign curricula and schedules allow each student to build his or her own individual path of education. Russian curricula are made with a clear emphasis on federal state educational standards (GEF), which minimizes the possibility of choosing a student. The selective part of modern “third generation” standards to a certain extent allows to make the educational process new subjects necessary within the framework of the main educational program. At the same time, however, elective courses are usually offered in a rigid “or-or” arrangement, which also limits the student’s options.
The complete transition of Russian education to more flexible curricula (in the future to individual curricula) entails a major reorganization of not only the educational process, but also the provision of human and financial resources.
In addition to the introduction of a two-tier system, new mechanisms and procedures to ensure the quality of higher education, the Bologna Declaration includes one of the go math middle school advanced 2 main conditions – the introduction of a single European credit and modular system (ECTS).
At the same time, the most important element of the credit-module system (credit system), which distinguishes it from the traditional for Russian universities group educational process, is a personal orientation in education, the transition to which requires abandoning the formation of a stable composition throughout the study of student groups and course flows. Overseas universities create study groups to study course modules at the beginning of each semester according to the choice of disciplines and teachers made by each student personally. This principle of formation provides so-called “student centring” of European education, which involves the preparation of individual plans, schemes, schedules, special educational programs and academic mobility.
As it is known, in the Russian higher education transition to a system of credits within the limits of wide experiment during several years and approbation has been carried out. In universities-participants many transformations have been carried out, but it was impossible to refuse completely the organization of group process of training and to pass to full individually-oriented training. In the framework of federal state standards “third generation”, in accordance with new legislation, the main task for the system of higher education is to introduce credits for calculating and planning the complexity of educational programs and the workload of students. In the very near future it is necessary, especially carefully, to develop legal documents governing the content, comparability of loans, teachers’ remuneration.
However, with a number of advantages in the European education system, there are also significant disadvantages. First of all, the focus of the university on the personality, coordination of its activities in the construction of an educational route, academic mobility, of course, meet the requirements of a personal-oriented approach, but at the same time clearly visible negative consequences due to increased length of study of European students. According to studies conducted by the International Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OEGD), this leads to “a high dropout rate, especially in the first year; late entry into the labor market (at the age of 28-30 years); reduced attractiveness”. for foreign students; unreasonably high costs